In Kindergarten, scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
Physical Sciences: Students learn that properties of materials can be observed, measured, and predicted.
Life Sciences: Students know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals.
Earth Sciences: Students learn that the Earth is composed of land, air, and water.
In 1st Grade, students develop their own questions and perform investigations. They record observations and data with pictures, numbers, or written statements.
Physical Sciences: Students learn that materials come in different forms (states) including solids, liquids, and gases.
Life Sciences: Students know different plants and animals inhabit different kinds of environments and have external features that help them thrive in different kinds of places.
Earth Sciences: Students learn that weather can be observed, measured, and described.
In 2nd Grade, students make predictions based on observed patterns and not random guessing.
Physical Sciences: Students learn that the motion of objects can be observed, changed, and measured.
Life Sciences: Students learn that plants and animals have predictable life cycles.
Earth Sciences: Students learn that the Earth is made of materials that have distinct properties and provide resources for human activities.
In 3rd Grade, students learn to differentiate evidence from opinion and know that scientists do not rely on claims or conclusions unless they are backed by observations that can be confirmed.
Physical Sciences: Students learn that energy and matter have multiple forms and can be changed from one form to another. They also learn that light has a source and travels in a direction.
Life Sciences: Students learn that adaptations in physical structure or behavior may improve an organism’s chance for survival.
Earth Sciences: Students learn that objects in the sky move in regular and predictable patterns.
In 4th Grade, students learn to differentiate observation from inference (interpretation) and know scientists’ explanations come partly from what they observe and partly from how they interpret their observations.
Physical Sciences: Students learn that electricity and magnetism are related effects that have many useful applications in everyday life.
Life Sciences: Students learn that all organisms need energy and matter to live and grow.
Earth Sciences: Students learn that the properties of rocks and minerals reflect the processes that formed them. They also learn that waves, wind, water, and ice shape and reshape Earth's land surface.
In Grade 5, students plan and conduct a simple investigation based on a student-developed question and write instructions others can follow to carry out the procedure. They identify a single independent variable in a scientific investigation and explain how this variable can be used to collect information to answer a question about the results of the experiment.
Physical Sciences: Students learn that elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of matter in the world.
Life Sciences: Students learn that plants and animals have structures for respiration, digestion, waste disposal, and transport of materials.
Earth Sciences: Students learn that water on the Earth moves between the oceans and land through the processes of evaporation and condensation. They also learn that the solar system consists of planets and other bodies that orbit the Sun in predictable paths.
In 6th Grade, students focus on Earth Science. They learn that plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth's surface and major geologic events. They learn that topography is reshaped by the weathering of rock and soil and by the transportation and deposition of sediment. Students study heat, and learn that it moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the objects are at the same temperature.